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The common cardinal symptoms of depression include:

  • persistently depressed or sad mood lasting 2 or more weeks

  • profoundly decreased energy (“dragging through the day”)

  • persistent feelings of hopelessness

  • disrupted sleep (typically difficulty falling asleep and staying asleep, but also excessive sleep)

  • difficulty concentrating

  • change in appetite (typically loss of appetite, but can also be increased appetite) often accompanied by weight loss/gain

  • persistently impaired self-esteem (feeling “worthless”)

  • decreased interest in activities previously giving the person pleasure

  • thoughts of suicide

Other commonly reported symptoms include crying spells, isolativeness, lack of motivation, increased perception of pain, increased anxiety and irritability, and difficulty making simple decisions.