Washington University’s psychiatrists include experts in a severe form of depression known as treatment-resistant depression (TRD). TRD is depression that does not respond well to typical treatments such as medication and psychotherapy.

Today as many as 2-3 million people in the United States suffer from TRD.

Our program specializes in research-backed therapies for patients referred to us by their physician or psychiatrist. We also conduct extensive research, including clinical trials, to discover new ways to treat TRD and assess how well existing therapies work.


We strive to provide a comprehensive evaluation of patients suffering from TRD, to provide the best guidance for care going forward.

Often times TRD patients have been on many different medications and medication combinations without fully understanding their treatment.

Our psychiatrists take a “big picture” view of each patient’s treatment. We carefully review medical history and psychiatric records to offer recommendations to the referring physician for future treatments.


Our program provides a consultative service, meaning all patients must currently be receiving care by a psychiatrist or primary care physician.

Patients must be referred directly by a written letter from their treating physician (please fax to 314-362-7017). Please contact 314-747-7348 with any questions.

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Using innovative treatments and knowledge, we aim to explore the biological and psychological basis of TRD and how this relates to treatment outcomes.

Very little is known about TRD and the nature of this horrible form of depression. Our staff is committed to better understanding this illness so we can provide more targeted treatments.

Our studies assess the impact of genetics, endocrinology, family history, brain function (using neuroimaging), psychology and pharmacology on TRD.